Presidential Memorandum Affirms RESOLVE’s work on Landscape-Scale Planning

Nov 3, 2015

Large-scale plans and analysis should inform the identification of areas where development may be most appropriate, where high natural resource values result in the best locations for protection and restoration, or where natural resource values are irreplaceable.”

Today the White House released a Presidential Memorandum calling for the use of “large-scale plans and analysis,” such as landscape-scale and watershed planning, to inform the design of federal policies and standards on conservation and natural resource development. This Memorandum echoes and affirms the work of RESOLVE’s Solutions Network, which is home to a multi-sector group seeking to advance the use of landscape-scale planning for responsible natural resource development. RESOLVE recently produced a series of podcast interviews exploring a variety of perspectives on landscape-scale planning, and RESOLVE and the World Economic Forum have commissioned a white paper by the Nature Conservancy on landscape-scale planning, which will be released later this year.

The Presidential Memorandum emphasizes the use of landscape-scale approaches to achieve both strong environmental outcomes and to encourage development by implementing policies that seek to reduce negative impacts and offset foreseeable harmful impacts to natural resources in advance. The Memorandum also encourages private investment in restoration efforts and public-private partnerships in to achieve restoration and conservation goals.

For more information on the RESOLVE’s work on landscape-scale planning, visit:

To listen to RESOLVE Podcasts on landscape-scale planning, visit:

To view the Presidential Memorandum, visit:

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Press Release: RESOLVE Releases Community Health and Shale Development Guidebook

Nov 2, 2015

Fills an “Information Gap” and Drills into Solutions for Communities, Government, and Industry 

A 2013 Wall Street Journal analysis determined that over 15 million Americans now live within a mile of a shale well that has been drilled since 2000. As shale energy development, also known as hydraulic fracturing or “fracking,” takes place in communities across the United States, local public health officials and other stakeholders are seeking guidance on the issues that could accompany development. In response to this information gap, RESOLVE has created the Community Health and Shale Development Guidebook (

“When shale development takes place, we should know what’s worked in other communities to address public health issues,” said Stephen D’Esposito, president of RESOLVE. “The guidebook is unique because it’s a project that draws from a broad range of stakeholders—health experts, companies, communities, NGOs, and others to share lessons.”

The guidebook provides information on health issues throughout the lifecycle of the shale development process from initial assessment to project closure; it is uniquely positioned to be a valuable source of information for those unfamiliar with the process. Shaped by the insights of a cross-sector working group consisting of members from the National Association of Country and City Health Officials (NACCHO), the Pew Trusts Health Impact Assessment Project, and Shell Oil Company – as well as by contributions from expert advisors and reviewers from the public health, NGO, and industry sectors – the guidebook offers options for responding to challenges, case studies of solutions that have worked, and a set of in-depth resources from a variety of perspectives.

According to David Dyjack, executive director of the National Environmental Health Association, “The Community Health and Shale Development Guidebook represents what is possible when industry, the public sector, and non-profits collaborate. The result is a practical, useful, and resource-rich guidance document helpful in the anticipation, recognition, evaluation, and control of the risks associated with the energy sector.”

Beyond providing information and options for local decision-makers, the guidebook will be used to inform the design of trainings and educational materials for public health officials. Launched as both a print and web-based resource, the guidebook will be accessible for all stakeholders, and will be regularly updated with information and case studies.

RESOLVE project director Dana Goodson said, “We are excited by the positive reception the guidebook received during the review workshops, and we are hopeful that it will serve as a valuable resource for local officials, community members, and industry representatives. We look forward to continuing to work with a variety of stakeholders to find solutions to challenges in shale development and to develop future versions of the guidebook.”

To view the guidebook in web and PDF versions, visit

For more information, please contact:

Dana Goodson – Project Director

(+1) 202- 965-6209


RESOLVE builds strong, enduring solutions to environmental, social, and health challenges. We help community, business, government, and NGO leaders get results and create lasting relationships through collaboration. RESOLVE is an independent non-profit organization with a thirty-eight year track record of success.

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Understanding and Strengthening Agreements Between Communities and Extractives Companies

Oct 12, 2015

On September 15, RESOLVE published From Rights to Results, a report examining the context, content, and functioning of agreements that companies establish with Indigenous communities for mining and oil and gas projects. Based on interviews and surveys with stakeholders from industry, government, communities, and civil society, From Rights to Results considers evolving government and corporate policies on Indigenous rights and the right of communities to Free, Prior, and Informed Consent (FPIC) in selected Latin American countries. RESOLVE conducted this analysis at the direction of the FPIC Solutions Dialogue, a community of industry and civil society leaders seeking to develop guidance and practice for those seeking to implement FPIC at potential extractive development sites. Our research and analytical work indicate that there are specific opportunities to create conditions for better agreements between companies and communities. From Rights to Results identifies those opportunities, as well as a range of challenges and research gaps.

Reactions to the report have been positive to date, with one former industry executive calling it “an excellent contribution to the whole issue of community engagement with extractives.” Another asserted that the report should be circulated broadly as the findings will be valuable in a range of geographies beyond the official Latin American scope of the research. An NGO representative congratulated the team on “this fantastic vision, implementation, and report. I am so happy to read that work to make FPIC real and functional is happening. I am not surprised that RESOLVE is front and center.”

RESOLVE Strategic Partner Tim Martin served as lead analyst, interviewer, and author. Steve D’Esposito and Senior Advisor Kate Kopischke also conducted interviews. Program Manager Taylor Kennedy and Associate Sallie Dehler also provided extensive research, drafting, and editing support.

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RESOLVE Awarded by the Clinton Global Initiative: Video

Sep 30, 2015

Watch RESOLVE and partners get featured on stage at the Clinton Global Initiative Plenary Session titled “Investing in Prevention and Resilient Health Systems”:


Skip to where Chelsea Clinton explains ReGrow West Africa:

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Press Release: ReGrow West Africa Partnership, Which Targets Post Ebola Economic Recovery, A Featured CGI Commitment

Sep 28, 2015

RESOLVE and Partners Make New Commitment to Reignite Post-Ebola Sustainable Economic Development in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra 

September 28, 2015, WASHINGTON – Yesterday, at the Clinton Global Initiative (CGI) Annual Meeting in New York, Stephen D’Esposito, President and CEO of RESOLVE, joined Chelsea Clinton and other leaders on stage, during the Plenary Session titled “Investing in Prevention and Resilient Health Systems,” to announce a new CGI Commitment to Action: catalyzing sustainable economic recovery in the three West African countries most affected by Ebola – Sierra Leone, Liberia and Guinea.  The commitment, “ReGrow West Africa: Post-Ebola Private Sector Recovery” was selected for its “exemplary approach to addressing a critical challenge.”

The Ebola public health crisis in West Africa crippled the economies of Sierra Leone, Liberia and Guinea. The withdrawal of private sector investment in these countries has led to huge losses of employment, income and government tax revenue. RESOLVE and ReGrow’s implementing partners, including the German Development Agency (GIZ), Cordaid, Chevron, the TAIA Peace Foundation, the Sierra Leone Investment and Export Promotion Agency (SLEIPA), leaders from the Ebola Private Sector Mobilization Group (“EPSMG”), will support the recovery and development of the private sector in the three affected countries by building public-private partnerships to overcome early development hurdles that block viable projects.

Photo: Clinton Global Initiative

“When it comes to public health, an economic offensive is an essential form of defense.  Let’s not forget, prior to Ebola these countries were growing.  ReGrow West Africa is simply a catalyst to restart this growth and reignite the entrepreneurial spirit in these countries, underpinned by a focus on sustainable development” said Stephen D’Esposito, President of RESOLVE.

The fundamental premise behind ReGrow West Africa – that strong public health systems are reliant on strong economies with dynamic private sectors – presents novel opportunities for collaborations across sectors, and is part of a new wave of innovative economic development.

“ReGrow West Africa is more than aid, it puts assets in the hands of Sierra Leone, Liberia and Guinea for economic growth today and strengthened health systems and networks tomorrow” said Jeffrey Wright, RESOLVE Board Member, award-winning actor, and businessman who is active in development and philanthropy in Sierra Leone.

Central to this initiative is the ReGrow Marketplace, a platform that will profile investment projects and small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) and help connect them with international investors, donors and other partners. “ReGrow West Africa fills a gap by identifying development-oriented investment projects, curating the portfolio, and creating a platform for private sector partnerships,” said Hussine Yilla, a Sierra Leonean business consultant.

ReGrow West Africa includes an innovative mechanism for providing direct funding for private sector development, the Resilience Trust. Building on the $1M funding commitment from Chevron, the Trust will provide direct investment in SMEs and high-impact greenfield projects.

For more information on ReGrow West Africa and Peace Diamonds contact:

Richard Schroeder, Director, RESOLVE Sustainable Development Initiative
+1 410 446 6426 or +1 202 965 6214

Stephen D’Esposito, President and CEO, RESOLVE
+1 202 255 2717

About the Clinton Global Initiative

Established in 2005 by President Bill Clinton, the Clinton Global Initiative (CGI), an initiative of the Clinton Foundation, convenes global leaders to create and implement solutions to the world’s most pressing challenges. CGI Annual Meetings have brought together 190 sitting and former heads of state, more than 20 Nobel Prize laureates, and hundreds of leading CEOs, heads of foundations and NGOs, major philanthropists, and members of the media. To date, members of the CGI community have made more than 3,200 Commitments to Action, which have improved the lives of over 430 million people in more than 180 countries.

In addition to the Annual Meeting, CGI convenes CGI America, a meeting focused on collaborative solutions to economic recovery in the United States; and CGI University (CGI U), which brings together undergraduate and graduate students to address pressing challenges in their community or around the world. This year, CGI also convened CGI Middle East & Africa, which brought together leaders across sectors to take action on pressing social, economic, and environmental challenges.

For more information, and follow us on Twitter @ClintonGlobal and Facebook at


RESOLVE builds strong, enduring solutions to environmental, social, and health challenges. We help community, business, government, and NGO leaders get results and create lasting relationships through collaboration. RESOLVE is an independent non-profit organization with a thirty-eight year track record of success.

Link to Press Release on CSRWire:

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Clinton Global Initiative Features ReGrow West Africa’s Innovative Approach to Post Ebola Economic Recovery

Sep 27, 2015

Today RESOLVE was featured at the Clinton Global Initiative (CGI) Annual Meeting to announce a new CGI Commitment to Action, ReGrow West Africa, which aims to catalyze sustainable economic recovery in the three West African countries most affected by Ebola – Sierra Leone, Liberia and Guinea. Steve D’Esposito, President and CEO of RESOLVE and Jeffrey Wright, RESOLVE Board Member, award-winning actor, and business man who is active in development and philanthropy in Sierra Leone, shared the stage with international leaders, who were also recognized for their commitments geared towards building resilient public health systems.

Steve D’Esposito (President/CEO of Resolve) and Jeffrey Wright (RESOLVE Board member) on stage at CGI Annual Meeting

The Ebola public health crisis in West Africa crippled the economies of Sierra Leone, Liberia and Guinea. The withdrawal of private sector investment in these countries has led to huge losses of employment, income and government tax revenue. RESOLVE and ReGrow’s implementing partners, including the German Development Agency (GIZ), Cordaid, Chevron, the TAIA Peace Foundation, the Sierra Leone Investment and Export Promotion Agency (SLEIPA), leaders from the Ebola Private Sector Mobilization Group (“EPSMG”), will support the recovery and development of the private sector in the three affected countries by building public-private partnerships to overcome early development hurdles that block viable projects. Central to this initiative is the ReGrow Marketplace, a platform that will profile investment projects and small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) and help connect them with international investors, donors and other partners.

The panel session prior to the ceremony reaffirmed the fundamental premise behind ReGrow West Africa – that strong public health systems are reliant on strong economies with dynamic private sectors. Indeed, Dr. Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala, former Finance Minister of Nigeria, cited that diverse perspectives and collaborations, particularly engagement with the private sector, are essential components of resilient public health systems. Similarly, actress Charlize Theron, founder of the Africa Outreach Project and United Nations Messenger of Peace, stated that a business mindset needs to inform and strengthen philanthropic initiatives.

Chelsea Clinton closed the ceremony by asking the audience for an unprecedented standing ovation for the featured participants. RESOLVE is honoured to have been featured among so many diverse and impressive initiatives at CGI, and will continue to develop novel collaborations to fuel economic development and the growth of robust public health systems.

To view a recording of the event, visit:


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Jewelry Industry Shines in Fight Against Wildlife Trafficking

Sep 24, 2015

Fighting the trade in illegal ivory is a group effort, and the jewelry sector is taking the lead. By implementing best practices, educating customers about the true cost of illegal wildlife products and maintaining clean supply chains, the jewelry industry is doing its part to eliminate both the supply of, and the demand for, illegal wildlife products.

Nearly every fifteen minutes, an elephant is killed for its ivory. RESOLVE is helping safeguard the future of elephants and other trafficked animals as part of the U.S. Wildlife Trafficking Alliance, “a voluntary coalition of non-profit organizations, companies, foundations and media interests that will be working closely with the U.S. government in a collaboration to reduce the purchase and sale of illegal wildlife and wildlife products.”

RESOLVE has worked with leading jewelers, US DOI and NGOs through the US Wildlife (ANTI) Trafficking Alliance to shine a spotlight on this issue. And we’re walking the talk through the work of our Biodiversity and Wildlife Solutions Program, implementing on-the-ground fixes: The program team recently deployed a drone to help save an elephant injured by a poacher’s poisoned arrow near the Kenya-Tanzania border.

By partnering with responsible industries and testing innovative solutions, RESOLVE continues to build strong, enduring solutions to environmental, social, and health challenges.

Check out the ad in the October issue of Instore Magazine.

-Stephen D’Esposito, President

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Eureka! – Mike Loch on Joining RESOLVE as a Strategic Partner

Jul 23, 2015

Some people in life know exactly what they want to do from the moment they are born. For me, it has been more of a directionally correct journey with various course corrections along the way. But after over 30 years working on numerous issues of corporate social and environmental responsibility, I am excited to dedicate myself full-time to a focus area that has become my true passion. For the past 8 years, I have taken leadership roles in the development and launch of several global conflict minerals initiatives, including the Conflict Free Sourcing Initiative (CFSI), Public Private Alliance for Responsible Minerals Trade (PPA), Solutions for Hope (SfH), and Conflict Free Tin Initiative (CFTI). With that background, I recently left my employer of over 29 years to launch my own consultancy – Responsible Trade LLC – to help corporations, both upstream and downstream, implement responsible trade policies and practices within their supply chains.

Initially, Responsible Trade LLC will support entities wishing to implement practical due diligence when the products they produce contain any tin, tantalum, tungsten, or gold – the most commonly recognized conflict minerals. We will provide support along the supply chain from the mine, to the brand company, and at all levels in between. In addition to the compliance and audit aspect, the company will also support the development and implementation of systems that source from conflict affected and high risk areas and connect the supply chain actors to help provide assurance that these materials are truly responsibly sourced.

I have worked with Jen, Steve, and Taylor at RESOLVE for several years now – RESOLVE serves as Facilitator to the PPA and now Secretariat of the expanded Solutions for Hope Platform. In my new role as President and CEO of Responsible Trade LLC, I am excited to officially become one of RESOLVE’s strategic partners. There is a need to continue to build systems and programs that will allow legitimate conflict free materials from the DRC and other areas affected by conflict to enter the global market. This need is even more pronounced now that the EU is drafting regulations that apply to any “high risk” or “conflict affected” areas worldwide, far above and beyond the U.S. Dodd-Frank regulation, which applies to the Democratic Republic of Congo and adjoining countries. Without strategic interventions, artisanal miners in these countries – even those operating legally and free of conflict – could lose their livelihoods. Given RESOLVE’ s experience in this space, I am excited to be partnering with them to help industry stay engaged in these areas and to use the lessons learned over the past eight years to shorten the learning curve. I’m eager to help organizations implement proven approaches and create the needed changes to contribute to peacebuilding, support responsible artisanal mining, enhance their own due diligence processes, and improve their bottom lines in the process.

My partnership with RESOLVE will support mission-focused activities and partnerships to help advance social, environmental and community benefit. We will be exploring project ideas to develop through RESOLVE’s Solutions Network and welcome any project ideas that you have. Or if I can help you on a commercial basis, please contact me at

- Mike Loch, Strategic Partner

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Announcing A New Online Hub for Innovation to Save Earth’s Biodiversity

Jul 22, 2015

RESOLVE’s Biodiversity and Wildlife Solutions program has joined forces with the World Resources Institute (WRI) and the environmental news website to develop an online platform,, to spark and share innovative, technology-driven solutions to address the alarming decline of Earth’s biodiversity.

The rapidly expanding human footprint, in the form of deforestation, illegal logging, habitat fragmentation, and the unsustainable hunting and harvesting of natural resources, is wiping out wildlife populations and their habitats worldwide. Resource managers and conservationists working against these threats must apply all tools possible, and they are eager to improve their capabilities. Many tech developers and engineers seek opportunities to apply their innovative skills and products. However, although technology is rapidly improving and more widely available, uptake in the field is stymied by infrequent communication, steep learning curves, and high development costs.

The new site aims to accelerate the flow of information and communication. The site will serve as a meeting hub targeted at three audiences: (1) scientists and conservation managers in the field who would benefit from technology, (2) tech developers that want to help interesting conservation or research projects, and (3) potential funders interested in supporting novel collaborations that bring technology to the field.

The hub will highlight use of emerging and existing technologies around the world and facilitate the interaction of these groups to solve forest and wildlife conservation challenges through news, stories from the field, and a discussion area to interact and form collaborations. These features will be integrated with regular technology gatherings sponsored by the site.

We hope to create a dynamic and informed online community where stories can be shared about successes, failures, and areas of great potential—a place where conservationists and technologists can interact and learn about each other’s needs, skills, and products. These dialogues can catalyze rapid field-testing and adaptation of technologies, bringing the most promising solutions to scale. We invite you to engage in our effort to improve the status of global biodiversity by joining in this new initiative.

Sue Palminteri, Scientist and Program Manager

Media contact: Inquiries by the media can be directed to Please mention Media in the subject line.

This image, taken with CAO lasers, shows a ground elevation map in dense tropical forest of western Amazon. The map uncovers a history of geologically old meanders in the Tambopata River in Peru. Today, only the main stem of the river persists, and all of the prehistoric meanders are now covered by forest. Images like these are essential to understanding how forest structures have changed and to inform conservation planning efforts. Caption and image courtesy of CAO.


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Global Deal For Nature

Apr 14, 2015

A Global Deal for Nature

Our planet faces two major and interrelated environmental crises: climate change and Earth’s 6th mass extinction event. Concerns about climate change prompted the recent Paris Agreement1, a deal for coordinated global action which sets a clear, scientifically based target for ensuring a safe climate. On this Earth Day, 2017, we propose a companion pact—a Global Deal for Nature—to protect nature and the diversity of life on our planet.

The scientific evidence is indisputable that we are now living through Earth’s sixth great extinction crisis2. Species are disappearing about 1,000 times faster today than they have previously, as human activity converts habitat and food sources to incompatible land uses. Many of our planet’s most iconic species, including tigers, giant pandas, elephants, down to the smallest orchids and hummingbirds, could disappear forever by the end of this century if intensive forest clearing and hunting continue. Rainforests and coral reef systems, repositories of the most number of species, are in decline. Degradation of the natural environment is impacting the ability of people to thrive or even survive, be it through loss of access to clean drinking water or important subsistence species, or through disruption or displacement due to climate-related storm events.

There is an alternative future. Scientists agree that we can enhance global ecosystem recovery by designating half of Earth’s land and seas as connected networks of protected areas, to enable the recovery of Earth’s biodiversity and the preservation of indigenous communities rights worldwide who are stewards of much of the world’s biodiversity3,4. At the same time, consistent with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs5) and other mechanisms, we can ensure that the other 50% set aside for development is designed to support the livelihoods of all people, and achieve this goal by 2050. Building towards this future is essential to allow nature and humanity to survive and thrive, especially because 9 billion people will likely inhabit the Earth by 2050.

Arriving at this balance requires a rapid shift in course. There is one Earth. We must honor a new-found commitment to save the space necessary to conserve most all of nature’s species, and the processes that sustain life on it—we must create a global safety net for the web of life. It took 3.8 billion years to create the world we live in; we are now called upon to change course in order to keep it healthy. With enough public support we can generate the political will for governments and local communities to ensure that the 21st century becomes the most hopeful for nature and humanity. 

The recent Paris Climate Deal points to a promising approach to a vibrant planet because it sets global goals and supports bottom-up efforts. But it is only a half-deal. To complement the climate efforts, a Global Deal for Nature could have four main pillars:

1. Expanded Habitat Protection: Half the terrestrial realm and 30-50% of the marine realm should be protected in an interconnected way while safeguarding the sovereign rights of indigenous communities. Doing so will be necessary, if not sufficient, to thwart the extinction crisis. From a static view, the goal of half-protected by 2050 seems impossible. Currently, 15% of the terrestrial realm is protected, but a recent study just published in BioScience4 shows that among the Earth’s 846 terrestrial ecoregions—ecosystems of regional extent—nearly 100 are already half-protected, and up to 2/3rds of all ecoregions could reach 50% by putting more lands under conservation management or in some cases active restoration of degraded habitats. Nature is not evenly distributed, however, so careful planning of where these new reserves should go to do the most good is vital.
2. Respecting Indigenous Conservation: Indigenous land conservation and respect of indigenous rights must be central to any new deal for Nature. Full stop. Human rights must be at the center of conservation and much of the world’s biodiversity resides on indigenous lands. Their direction and voice in how to craft such a deal for nature, uniting traditional and scientific knowledge, is the best way to save life on Earth.
3. Large Mammals Lead the Way: Across Africa and parts of Asia, signs point to the end of the megafauna—the large mammals that delight and inspire us and ensure that ecosystems function effectively6. Rather than let them slip away as an anachronism in this modern age, we should channel resources to recover them as we have done so successfully for the southern white rhino and savanna elephants at various times in the last century7,8,9. Other smaller endangered species, restricted to isolated habitats must be recovered and safeguarded.
4. Appropriate Technology: As humans reduce our footprint through appropriate new technologies, growing urbanization, soil building agroecology and intensified aquaculture, it is possible to feed even 9 billion people and still leave room for the other 10 million species on the planet. In this new configuration, a Great Decoupling10 of our need to clear more land, or exploit new frontiers, an alternative is taking shape. One in which all new infrastructure becomes environmentally friendly infrastructure, cities are redesigned and created to be green cities with cheap energy for development, and degraded lands are restored to health. The future will be exciting and prosperous if ecological harmony becomes part of the design, especially if embraced by all corporations, starting with those with major global footprints.

The Paris deal and a Deal for Nature are interdependent. Together they are more likely halt the acidification of the world’s oceans and the decline of coral reefs, thereby protecting essential fisheries that feed a large part of humanity. Preventing the drying up of the central Amazon rainforest would lead to saving millions of species, and would avoid changes in weather patterns and precipitation, both in South America and far from the tropics where the world’s cereal crops are grown. Studies also show that protecting and restoring the species-rich tropical rainforests is the single cheapest action that requires no advanced technology to mitigate global carbon dioxide emissions. The list goes on.

The annual bill for all of the above amounts to about what Americans spend annually on pet food and grooming, about $25 billion11. The payoff would be a living planet for future generations to enjoy and prosper.

Earth’s bounty underpins human well-being, and yet we are poised to wipe these out in the blink of an eye in geological time. Now it is time to give back before our living standards and spirits are further diminished by the loss of the diversity around us. With recent advances in technology and globally available earth information systems, we have the tools necessary to protect most of life on Earth and monitor our progress, should we organize and choose to do so. Adding a Global Deal for Nature would better allow humanity to develop a vibrant low-impact economy while leaving precious room for the rest of life on Earth. We must elevate this Deal to become the overarching conservation paradigm for this century. The two deals together foster nature and humanity’s health and a future for all species and future generations.

Eric Dinerstein, Ph.D.
Biodiversity and Wildlife Solutions – RESOLVE

1United Nations. 2017. Framework Convention on Climate Change. Paris Agreement. Accessed on Feb 18, 2017.

2Gerardo Ceballos, Paul R. Ehrlich, Anthony D. Barnosky, Andrés García, Robert M. Pringle, Todd M. Palmer. Accelerated modern human–induced species losses: Entering the sixth mass extinction 2015. Science Advances 1: e1400253, DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1400253

3Dinerstein E, et al. 2017 in press. An ecoregion-based approach to protecting half of the terrestrial realm. BioScience;

4Wilson EO. 2016. Half Earth: Our Planet’s Fight for Life. Liveright. United Nations. 2017.

5Sustainable Development Goals. Accessed Feb 18, 2017.

6William J. Ripple. Thomas M. Newsome, Christopher Wolf, Rodolfo Dirzo, Kristoffer T. Everatt, Mauro Galetti, Matt W. Hayward, Graham I. H. Kerley, Taal Levi, Peter A. Lindsey, David W. Macdonald, Yadvinder Malhi, Luke E. Painter, Christopher J. Sandom , John Terborgh, Blaire Van Valkenburgh, Collapse of the world’s largest herbivores Science Advances  01 May 2015: Vol. 1, no. 4, e1400103, DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1400103

7Andrea K. Turkalo, Peter H. Wrege, George Wittemyer. 2017. Slow intrinsic growth rate in forest elephants indicates recovery from poaching will require decades. Journal of Applied Ecology 2017, 54, 153–159.

8Thouless, CR, et al. 2016. African Elephant Status Report 2016: an update from the African Elephant Database. Occassional Paper Series of the IUCN Species Survival Commission, No. 60 IUCN / SSG Africa Elephant Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.

9Maisels, F, et al. 2013. Devastating decline of forest elephants in Central Africa. PLOS 8: e59469.

10Fischer-Kowalski M, Swilling M. 2011. Decoupling: Natural Resource Use and Environmental Impacts From Economic Growth. United Nations Environment Programme.




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